Animals in Russian folk tales

Tales about animals – the most ancient group of fairy tales, which are based on totemic and animist cults . These tales are associated with archaic worlds in which animal characters were at the beginnings of Creation . In the extant stories these mythological elements reinterpreted differently. Tale shows that earlier people have tried to explain the phenomena that occur in nature and experiencing awe before the animals symbolizing strength. So there were negative characters of Russian fairy tales . This character is peculiar to each its own individual character and its specific features. Characteristics of animals in the tale includes several distinct characters, symbolizing strength and cunning, malice, and brute force.

In the animal world , there is a special type of tales of the hero – a trickster , a rogue and a liar . Fox is the main trickster tales . This stable image , which is dominated by cunning, deceitfulness and tricks. Fox will do anything to get their – to pretend weak and helpless , to indulge in all his charm and eloquence . In Russian fairy tales trickster contrasted character – simpleton . They can be a wolf, a fox which successfully takes over cock (” cat, rooster and the fox “), or weak hare, which she throws out her hut ( “The Fox and the Hare “). Initially, the myth was his unusual behavior contributed to creation of the world and acquiring knowledge. Unlike the myth , the fox trickster often punished for their antics , especially when she attacks the helpless weak heroes. For example , Fox in a fairy tale ” with Chanterelle skalochkoy ” flees and hides in a burrow .

Wolf in fairy tales traditionally represents greed and anger. He is often portrayed stupid , so it often fool the characters tales cunning , for example , Fox . The juxtaposition of these two strong animal characters found in many fairy stories , and almost all of the wolf , as a slow-witted and short-sighted , again and again gives fooled . However , in the image of the wolf ancient cultures associated with death , so this animal tales characters often someone eats ( “The Wolf and the Seven Little Kids “) or violates the peaceful life of animals (” Zimov’e beasts “). But in the end the good fairy-tale characters of Russian fairy tales always cheat or defeat the wolf. For example , the wolf in the fairy tale ” foxy – sister and the Wolf” is without a tail .

Bear in fairy tales is the embodiment of brute force. Sometimes he is ferocious , sometimes – naive and kind. Being the master of the forest , he has power over the other animals , but , nevertheless , differs rustic character . The capacity of the animal characters in virtually eliminates mind – bear in fairy tales and stupid is fooled weak animals. You can see a parallel with the image of a bear image rich landowners during serfdom. Therefore, humans and other animals , symbolizing the tales free and cunning Russian people often try to trick and fool the bear. For example , a bear with nothing ( Tale “Man and the Bear “) is eaten or even a crowd of people (” Bear – lime leg” ) . In some tales bear lazy , calm and very much appreciates your peace. Also, there are tales in which a bear behaves as a good animal characters to help people . For example, bestows gifts bear Masha , speaking thus , a symbol of good forces of nature who love hard work and honesty.

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Penguins – unusual birds

Penguin – the only bird that can swim but can not fly. In addition, it is the only bird walking standing . Penguins – flightless aquatic birds that live in the wild only in the lands of the southern hemisphere. Most penguins spend half their lives in the ocean, and the other half on land. In general, most species of penguins live in Antarctica and in some other areas of the coldest hemisphere. Some few species can survive in temperate and even tropical latitudes. In general, penguins made ​​for life in the sea. Some species spend as much as 75 % of their lives in water, on land , they are chosen only to lay their eggs and wait for posterity. Heavy, hard bones are in the water as heavy belt diver , allowing the penguins stay under water . Their wings are shaped like fins , and help them to “manage” the movement of the water at speeds up to 15 miles per hour . Streamlined body like an oar feet , an insulating layer of fat and waterproof feathers – all of them is effective and comfortable stay under water. They also have a remarkable ability to dive deep . In addition to not lose heat , penguins have tight , very compact arrangement of feathers (up to 70 square meters. Cm ), providing waterproofing.
Penguins cover their feathers fat from the gland near the tail to increase tightness . Black and white coloring makes them almost invisible to predators from both above and below. As with most birds , penguins , or the sense of smell is weak or non-existent. Like other birds, penguins have limited taste buds. It is believed that their vision better when they are submerged. Scientists suspect that penguins can be short-sighted on the ground. Penguins are thought to be the most social birds. Colonies can contain thousands of individuals. Even in the sea they tend to swim and eat in groups. Most species of penguins build nests , but the nests may consist of only a pile of rocks, cleanings or voids in the mud. Emperor penguins do not build nests , they retain the egg between your legs under the loose fold of skin, called pocket litter .
The whole body is covered with small scaly penguin feathers , most of which consists of one rod , without webs . The head is decorated with bunches of certain long , bristle-like feathers, and the other tail feathers , too dlinny.Golova small head with a long beak , straight, strong, solid , laterally compressed , the neck of medium length, becomes almost a cone-shaped body , short legs , almost entirely enclosed in the body skin , thus allow only short steps , his fingers are strongly developed , all four are directed forward, but the membrane are connected only three of them. On the ground, the bird is held vertically , the rear surface of the paw, but when walking the last stands almost vertically . Penguins walk with great difficulty, waddling , wanting to avoid the danger lay down on his stomach and slide with wings and legs so fast that they are hard to catch up, especially on a snow-covered surface. Penguins swim and dive perfectly and with amazing ease overcome the turbulent waves of the open ocean – their present scope . Unlike other birds , penguins swim with one of the wings , sending them into the work alternately ; legs serve only as a rudder and extended straight back . Food penguins consists of fish , crustaceans and molluscs .
A significant part of the year dedicating penguins breeding at which time the tens and hundreds of thousands are going to the most secluded islands of the Antarctic Ocean. At this time, not even incubates birds live on land. Nest , as it does live – societies. Put on two white or greenish white eggs , which is being watched both parents alternately , as the penguins strongly developed the habit of stealing other people’s eggs . This accounts for the fact of being uncommon in one nest chicks of various kinds. The chicks hatch thickly covered with down and grow rapidly , thanks to the extremely abundant food, continuously delivered roditelyami.K tail end of the output last otrepyvaetsya to the utmost , and they start to fade , often moving away for it in the nooks . Molting , judging from observations in captivity is very fast , ending in two weeks . Thus penguins not go into the water and , therefore, do not eat , they will readily transferred through a thick layer of subcutaneous fat.
Penguin meat is very good to eat . The northernmost boundary of the penguins in the Atlantic Ocean passes through on – d’Akunya in Tristan , the Indian – through of Amsterdam , and in the Pacific through the Galapagos Islands , as they are found near the coast of New Zealand, South Australia , the southern tip of Africa and along the Pacific coast of South America. The family may be divided into three groups , well- characterized , not only outside , but also the anatomical features. The first takes in a form having a large value , a long , thin, slightly curved beak and concludes birth Aptenodytes and Pygoscelis. This includes the Patagonian penguin (A. patagonica) and the penguin dlinnoklyuvy (A. longirostris). The second group – the genus Eudyptes – has a shorter beak , but tall and is easily recognized by the beautiful yellow brow pencils pens. This includes golden-haired penguin ( E. chrysocome). A third group of the beak is very short , strongly compressed laterally , the upper jaw is bent hook, cut the bottom right , there is no crest . Here belongs to the Cape penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from South Africa , Spheniscus minor from Australia and the most northerly of all kinds – Spheniscus mendiculus to the Galapagos Islands. Fossil remains of penguins are few, but of the Upper Eocene strata of New Zealand is known for the large form P. (Palaeeudyptes antarcticus), which proves the antiquity of this group of birds.

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Ant , insect

Ants are a common species of insects , they can be found almost anywhere. If you measure the biomass of all the ants in the world , their share in the biomass of living organisms will be 10-20%. With regard to species characteristics , then today there are about 12 thousand species of insects. And while the process of discovering new species continues.
The structure of the ant is so significant that it is not possible to confuse it with other insects.
From the point of view of biology , ants belongs to the order Hymenoptera , and they are united in a family of ants . This family includes 12,470 species and subspecies of 4515 .
Ants are insects that are characterized by social way of life. In their environment, you can select females , males , and working individuals . In this case, females and males have wings , and working individuals – wingless . The external structure of these insects has a clear division into segments : head, mesosoma (body part that comes after the head) and abdomen .
Ant’s outer shell – it’s exoskeleton , ie in this case we can say that the skeleton of this insect is on the outside , it performs all the functions of a normal skeleton. The antennae ants (antennas ) are made up of tribes . Antennas are senses that detect the vibration of air, and with them the ants can detect chemicals .
The head stands out because it has a considerable size , and the eyes are reasonably complex facet structure. In paired eye color ant can detect three eyelet , intended to determine the level of illumination. By the way , the ants differ myopia , and some completely blind.
Ants are arthropods and have three pairs of legs . In addition, each foot ” equipped ” claw hamata form. This claw allows these insects to conquer vertical surfaces. Regarding the size Ant , the range is sufficiently large, and it may be from 1 to 50 mm. Thus the smallest considered ants of the genus Monomorium, in which males and females have a length of about 4 mm and the worker ants twice less. In turn, the giant ants is almost eight times more.

red ant

In Russia there are about 125 species of ants. Among them are the red ant that inhabits almost the entire forest area. This species of ant is distinguished by its large size (7-14 mm). Chest and head have color black and tan , and the abdomen has a dark shade . Throughout the body are golden hairs . In the area of ​​the forehead can see a small square, which shines like a mirror.
Its easy to spot in the forest, since this type of building a typical ant (up to 2 m), which are assembled from small twigs and diverse plant debris . Nest medium size capacity of up to half a million birds , and large nests can be home to millions of individuals of this species. This kind of ants can be safely attributed to the ” forest medics ‘ because they eat insect pests ( leaf rollers , caterpillar shovel, whiteflies , etc.).

black Ant

Black Ant is a common insect , with which most of us regularly encounter . Color these ants have color variations – from dark brown to black.
The basis for the construction of an anthill is soil and in appearance resemble bulk nest mound . Also nests are built under stones and rotten wood . Mating process lasts from June to August.
The formation of new households are without worker ants . After mating flight queen finds some secluded place and founded a new family. Also worth noting is the fact that this species of ant is different lifetime, which is about 28 years.

wood ant

The forest is the habitat for many interesting species of ants. One of them is the green ant , which is found in southern India and south -east Asia. This ant has not completely green color , so his abdomen has an orange -red color , and the legs and breast are light brown . Their nests are not placed on the ground and in the trees. To do this, they connect the leaves with spider webs that produce larvae . A colony of ants may take up to 10 trees , and their total number in this case is from 100 to 500 thousand individuals .
They, like black ants are ” orderlies of the forest” , because they protect the trees from pests. Also, these ants have been used by local residents as bait to catch fish , and as feed for poultry.

Ant – some interesting facts
If the fire ant falls into the water , then it is likely to sink , although it can stay afloat for several hours. If the water gets sufficient fire ants , they form a raft of their bodies that may drift several weeks , since the density is high, and has no gaps.
There is a kind of carpenter ants , which are present in the composition of some individuals who have a strong poison glands of the jaw . And when other people are trying to capture an anthill ants , these individuals are approaching enemies and make a break of his own body . As a result, the poison is in their body, sprayed at a distance and killing the invaders.

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Tarantulas (Latin Theraphosidae)

  
Tarantulas , spiders or ptitseyady (Latin Theraphosidae) – a family of spiders of the suborder mygalomorph (Mygalomorphae). Adult characterized by large size, in some cases exceeding 20 cm legspan .
A widely shared content tarantulas as exotic pets.

habitat

Tarantulas inhabit all continents except Antarctica. The area includes a fully Africa, South America, Australia and Oceania. In Europe, the tarantulas are rare, their range includes the southern half of Italy, Spain and Portugal. Occur as moisture-loving species found in the crowns of rainforest , for example Avicularia versicolor and semi-arid drought-resistant , for example Chromatopelma cyaneopubescens.

nutrition

Tarantulas are obligate ( strict ) carnivores . Contrary to the name , their digestive system is not designed for permanent meals meat ( poultry ) . The basis of the diet of tarantulas are insects or smaller spiders . Spiders are sufficiently omnivores and can eat a varied diet : flies , cockroaches, bloodworms , frogs , small rodents , birds, fish and more. Tarantulas hunters by nature, they are often lying in wait for prey from an ambush , and do not use the web to make traps.

behavior

From the behavior of tarantulas also informally divided into wood , surface and burrow . It is worth noting that during the life they often change their pattern of behavior , and if the larvae behave as burrowing , the adults most of the time can be carried out on the surface , which is characteristic of land and poludrevesnym species. Burrowing spiders dig shelters in the ground , using the web for soil stabilization , wood weave a web of tubes . In most cases, the spiders are active only when it is obviously necessary. Even the hungry spiders can sit perfectly still for a long time , hunting down in an ambush their prey. Well-fed spiders tend to be even less activity : adult female tarantulas often for months without leaving their shelters .

Total Theraphosidae squad has more than 110 genera ,

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Forgotten mythological animals

Catoblepas (Catoblepas). Classical Mythology. Cows are not the most vicious animals. Their cute face and tasty meat are not signs of danger, unless you’re talking about mad cow disease, or their fellow man mythical catoblepas. Mythology gives rise to a rather strange creatures, but this creature is beyond the usual weirdness. Catoblepas was a cow grazing on the banks of rivers. Because of the plant, which he ate, his breathing was terribly toxic, and his gaze killed on the spot. It is believed that the stories about the creature originates from the ancient people of meetings with wildebeest that somehow unfair to these antelopes.

Indian ants. The medieval mythology. Note: Ahead of you are creepy insects gigantic proportions. Ants are one of the greatest builders and workers of nature, but, like most insects, they make some people dislike. Fortunately for these people, the ants usually small in size and quite harmless, unless you are traveling to South America, where there are fire ants and a host of other nasty creatures. Unfortunately, the ancient decided that lethal conventional counterparts ants to them is not enough and decided to write a story about the giant ants that guard the gold. Legend has it that somewhere in the vastness of the world, deserts and distant places, where people are very rare, giant ants guard the huge piles of treasure. If you manage to break through the ants – your gold. Of course, they made their way through the only one. Why? Well … because the giant ants. Do I need to explain?

Roc (Roc). Indian and Persian mythology. Suppose you are in India, and by sheer luck you met an Indian elephant. After eating together from peanuts you become friends for life, and then you turned away for a moment, then turned back and saw that the elephant is no more. You look up and see something carries the unfortunate animal. So you meet Roc, a giant mythological bird, had mentioned the famous explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton (Sir Richard Francis Burton). Roc, of course, very dangerous for her and you’ll be a great addition to her carnivorous dinner – maybe you will be in her seat as a garnish for slonine tartar sauce. Or you can run like hell as soon as it will take. Probably the latter is better.

Yaskonty (Aspidochelone). Greek mythology. This being ripped straight out of a storybook. Suppose that you and your friends are in the sea, and came across to the island. Map of the island is not, but you still foolishly decide to moor. After a while, the island begins to move. Say hello to flake miracle, which is the yaskonty. This creature is a huge turtle, the back of which resembles an island. Vegetation growing on the island, and over time it becomes even a habitat for wildlife. When the unfortunate sailors lit a fire on his back, yaskonty plunges back into the water, drowning sailors and destroy their ship. Not quite the tropical vacation, which all had hoped.

Firebird. Russian mythology. We all know of the Phoenix, a legendary bird that rises from the ashes after burns to the ground, but his Russian cousin, the firebird, few people have heard. The essence of Russian fairy tales, beautifully glowing in the darkness of the forest, is the subject of the great and almost unattainable quest hero. Sometimes firebird points the way, at other times it is the subject of the search, and her feathers are considered very valuable booty. It would be nice to have a heat-farm birds, is not it?

Hugin and Munin (Huginn And Muninn). Scandinavian mythology. Scandinavian supreme god Odin (Norse All-Father Odin) pretty cool guy – he sacrificed an eye for sacred knowledge, he is the head of the Pantheon, and he has two amazing hand bird. Hugin and Munin are a source of omniscience of Odin, Hugin is the epitome of wisdom and Munin memory. They are also two of the most important creatures in Norse mythology. They act as an extension of Odin, and he was constantly worried that the day may come when they will not return.

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Aurochs

    

Bison – a large cloven-hoofed animals inhabiting the entire eastern and western part of the forest-steppe zone of Eurasia in a fairly large number of HΙH almost to the end of the century. However, due to destruction of human activity-hunter, as well as due to natural factors (diseases, predators) already in 1923 many thousands of livestock remained little more than 50 representatives of this kind of wild cattle, and they lived mainly in protected areas.
To resume the population of this animal was established the International Society for the conservation of bison. The hard work is done on this day. And the results are obvious: more than 3,000 animals live today in all reserves and nurseries in the world. And in the Bialowieza Forest and in the Caucasian Reserve implemented a semi-content bison. But even with these successes, let herds of bison in the open unprotected area, scientists still are not solved.
Appearance is similar to the ancient Greek bison tour. As wide and powerful front part of the body, protruding hump on his back, sharp little horns. And all that impressive physique covered dense long, stiff hair. In addition to the general terrifying sight – mane and beard. The total weight of up to 1000 kg of animal. But it’s mostly males, females is much smaller and sleeker. However, despite the reduced weight and a weak physique, females live longer – up to 27 years, whereas males – only about 22 years. In addition to physical strength, nature has not endowed bison excellent hearing, and even worse things with sight.
Such a terrible bison – absolutely harmless creation not only for humans, but even for the other inhabitants of the forest and steppe. Vegetarian food animal consists of grass and trees and shrubs. In search of food and water sent more bison in the evening, and all the daylight hours idly spends maturation, chewing gum. Very honored bison brush your hair in the dry land, shake and soak up the sun. Negotiate dozens of kilometers of distance for powerful legs bison is not a problem. Like athletes, runners and jumpers – they are easy and fast moving, jumping over obstacles several meters high.
Very interesting courtship bison. At the end of the summer bull chooses a herd of females and protects all of them from foreign invasion. Sometimes there are fights, competition among male bison – a presentation in front of each other and the audience-females intimidating poses, loud noises. Very rarely, if there was still fight like disassembling end serious injuries or death of the loser. Gestation lasts zubrihoy as a person, about 9 months. Just born baby in an hour is ready to run for his mother, and after 20 days can feed on grass alone. But breast milk female baby does not stop even after 5 months.

The history of the preservation of this powerful and strong animal really makes you think. I’d like to believe that breeding and increase the number of bison did not stop. And there will come a day when there will be only the bison symbol of Belarus.

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Domestic cats

     

Domestic cats. Undeniable fact – the big cats chistyuli. It seems that they endlessly licking his fur coat, but in fact almost any kitty assigns for this occupation is “only” 3-4 hours a day. They do not wash their hands so much for getting rid of dirt, much of the smell. Oh, how they do not like to wash them after the next one again pat! Here she is sitting licked clean, odorless, and we make her a strange smell again to plot the fur, and the process of licking went on the new. Cats sometimes lick themselves so thoroughly that some parts of their coats are just raw. All these facts show how important it is for the cat to be clean.

Grooming cats consists of two items: washing and combing. Both cat performs only by means of language, helping himself to his paws.

The special properties of the cat’s tongue not only allow the cat to wet hair, but combing it. And if the disposal of the domestic cat has a rough tongue, the man has a very decent arsenal of tools to help his beloved mustachioed marvel keep her coat in good condition.
Why comb the cat?

You may ask, is it necessary to comb the cat? Vaughn street cats no scratches, and they look good. So it is true, but just not at all “noblemen” coat is in satisfactory condition, especially if you look closely. Yes, they have more opportunities to care for her natural-natural way by eating a variety of grass. But you look healthy cat’s fur depends on other factors, such as the quality and quantity of food.

Just keep in mind that the need for care in short-haired fur and long-haired cats are different. Most of the short-haired breeds fur strands reach a length of 4.5 centimeters, while the long-haired – 13 or more.

There are two reasons why we comb their baleen-striped pets. In the first, a pragmatic, because we care about … currently. That is, we comb, or rather, comb out, the cat, so she do not leave your hair at home. But, even so, we bring great benefit to your cat.

Periodic combing we massaging cat skin and stimulate blood flow to the hair follicles, leading to a healthier cat hair. Shorthair cat, in principle, can not do without such a procedure, but regular brushing longhaired cats helps prevent formation of their so-called tangles, which then can be fought only with scissors. But in place of mats shaved bald spots appear, which did not paint this graceful animal. In addition to the above, all cats scratching just nice. Nice, but not everywhere, and each in its place, so this procedure is often forcibly-compulsory character of the man, and the defensive – on the part of the cat.

People who comb their pets for a second reason – connoisseurs and fans of his health kisulya. They do this by caring only about the cat’s health. When we comb the cat, we do not just her healthy hair, but also help her not to buy health problems.

“What are these problems?” You ask. – Most real. Cat hair – is not only a hindrance to clean house. Hairs easily penetrate the cat’s stomach while licking and accumulate there in a tight glomeruli. These puffs of wool often accumulate in the stomachs of those cats are rarely combed.

Nevychesannye dead hairs fall inside the cat for the following reason: the language of a cat covered with numerous tubercles (papillary), who help her to lap up the liquid, swallow food and lick the meat off the bones. It is because of these bumps Murok rough tongues. When a cat licks the fur, the fallen hairs are pulled to the animal’s mouth and then swallowed.

“So what?” – You might say, “all cats lick centuries and apparently swallowed their fur. Outdoor cats do not comb, and nothing terrible happens to them.”

So it is true, but let’s first take a look at the consequences of the accumulation of hair in the stomach of the cat.
The cat, which was formed in the stomach of a ball of wool, can feel the hunger and satiety at a time. It is too often begins to approach the bowl, eating little. She’s trying to get rid of the hair in two ways. First – this is a dry cough. Dry cough helps the cat spit wool, but helps to get rid of for a while discomforts. Most likely, such a cat trying to cough cause vomiting itself, which is the second and more effective way of getting rid of tangles hair. By the way, the smooth muscle of the pharynx and stomach of cats so designed that it can not keep food or other products or death.

Sometimes accumulated in the stomach fur can lead to such a serious problem as intestinal blockage. In such cases, sometimes even resorting to operations. At risk gets so artificially bred breed is a Persian. The Persians are not only long hair, but she is also very thin and therefore easily penetrates into the stomach.

Virtually all domestic cats, short-haired and long-haired, occasionally feel a sense of discomfort in the stomach of the fleece. Outdoor cats have almost no problems such as eating grass, which helps them to get rid of the hair naturally. Grass is a universal remedy for many ailments. This is the main reason why domestic cats nibble plants and flowers in pots. Perhaps the release of the fallen during molting fur street cats facilitated by the fact that they lead a more active lifestyle, running around in the tall grass, like to roll on the ground.

To combat hair in the stomach and connected feed manufacturers. For a long time produced food with ingredients that prevent the formation of balls of wool in the stomach and cats contribute to its natural conclusion from the body. Of course, the “live” green grass usefulness and efficiency of feed, so in the summer be sure to give your cat the opportunity to eat the grass on the street.

Wool, especially in long-haired cats, can also accumulate at the lower canines, where the cat can not get it. If these hairs do not clean up, then, to the extent of accumulation, they can grow into the gums, leading to inflammation.

Conclusion: The cat is not only in need of a beautiful healthy coat, but also in the protection of their beautiful and healthy coat.

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Determining the health of cats

Sick cat is very different from the healthy. It is known that any disease causing organism in any animal, including cat, a number of more or less serious disorders which have different symptoms, namely:
- The behavior of a diseased cat changed. Cat sluggish, lots of lies, trying to hide in a dark place, reluctant to respond to the call or, for example, in a rage, on the contrary, value excited, mobile and aggressive.
- Appetite sick cats also broken. The cat is not eating or just refuses to feed, and sometimes excessively increased appetite. Increased appetite in cats, for example, is observed after an epileptic seizure. And with rabies perverted appetite – a sick animal greedily devoured completely inedible objects. Swallowing the patient cat can be difficult, there is choking when eating food. The cat is drinking a lot of water, or on the contrary, rejects water.
- The coat of shiny, silky, turns into a dull and disheveled, dandruff appears.
- From the nose, eyes and other organs appear sick cat discharge (pus, mucus, etc.). Sick cat eyes half closed the third century.
- The mucous membranes of the mouth, eyelids – pale, bluish or jaundiced. The activity of the gastrointestinal tract changed: marked vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, flatulence in the intestine. Listed in the presence of feces foreign objects (wool, worms, etc.).
- Urination broken, the color of urine and the amount of change, there is an unpleasant smell.
- The temperature of the cat’s body, breathing, heart rate change, but these signs of diseases cats usually do not appear at the same time: usually expressed most clearly is one sign, while others accompany it (in some combination). On the improvement of health and recovery can be judged by the disappearance of all disease manifestations characteristic of a particular disease.

Examination should begin with a tour of the cat hair coat and skin. If you suspect the presence of skin parasites (fleas, ticks, etc.), you can use optical magnifying devices: magnifier and a microscope. Then, it is determined whether discharge from the eyes and other organs of diseased cat. The mucous membrane of the mouth by pulling up inspect the upper lip cat. If you manage to open the cat’s mouth, then have the opportunity to explore all of the oral cavity, including the mucous membranes, tongue, lips, and so on. The cavity of the ear and ear canal look better in daylight or bright light. Bowel condition is determined by slight feeling stomach cat. With this method, the study determined easily bowel pain, the presence of gas, the degree of accumulation of feces. If you are a cat owner has some skills, he is impossible to determine even the degree of filling of the bladder. Determine the nature of the excretory function under natural Departures cats, but not preventing her perform physiological processes. If required, the laboratory analysis of the collected feces, urine into sterile jars. For a full presentation on the state of the cat is necessary to measure the body temperature of a cat, to determine the frequency of breathing and pulse count.

Ate you were without an assistant, and the need to give the cat a pill or drink medicine to treat a wound in the head and neck, you should be tightly swaddle cat in a cloth or blanket, dropping his front paws along the trunk. But if you have a locking bag, then put in a cat and spend it with her the necessary manipulations ..

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Canary

Canary – a bird rather modest size. Its length is a maximum of 14 cm And, domesticated forms of these birds a little more wild.

Males and females have different colored feathers. The male usually stands yellow-green plumage with a white belly and dark dashes on the back. The female has a pale color, as her feathers edged with gray stripes on the back feathers are brownish.
Since the canary bird enthusiasts are known for a long time, displayed a great many individuals of different color. Most often seen in captivity has monotonous canary yellow plumage.
Birthplace of canaries, as its name implies, are the Canary Islands. In addition, the birds are found in the Azores Islands, Madeira, Porto Santo. Canaries are choosing to stay woodlands, located mainly in mountainous areas. However, often the canaries can be found in places where people live – in parks and gardens of small towns or villages.
Canary gregarious birds. Thus, depending on the habitat, they can lead a sedentary or nomadic way of life. Canary build their nest in trees. For the period of breeding canary chicks are split into pairs. While the female incubates the offspring, the male is nearby and sings.

History of breeding

Canary inhabit the islands of the Canaries Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, etc.

In 1473 the Spanish sailors moored for the first time in these areas, appreciated the wealth of the islands and their flora and fauna. With the help of the military forces and weapons, the islands were conquered by the Spaniards, who organized a colony. Invaders soon attracted the attention of small songbirds, which the local population kept in houses in small cages made from reeds. The colonialists passed a law by which the canaries can not be exported from the island was under pain of punishment. But in the 16th century, canaries were exported to Europe, where they are after a while widespread. The birds began to spread in Italy and then throughout Europe. There is also a legend that the canary appeared in Europe thanks to the shipwreck: Spanish ship carrying birds crashed near Italy.

Birds attracted similar to their usual habitat climate, and they settled in the new territories, began to multiply. After a while, there were data on the feral canaries, is widely distributed on the Elbe. Thus, Italy was the first country where the canary began to spread throughout Europe.

Captive breeding canaries initially prevented that the Spaniards prohibited to export from the islands of the females, and on the continent sold only males. After the spread of canaries in Italy, the birds began to fall in Germany, and from there to France, England and Holland. In Germany, have made significant progress in the breeding of this species, was derived more than 25 varieties of canaries, differing not only feathers, but also poetic abilities of these birds are so appreciated.

The most famous was the canary Tyrol, has an outstanding voice data. Canaries from Germany began to spread in Russia, North America and Australia. Germany has become the main supplier of these birds and the early 20th century, revenues from this trade exceeded 750 thousand marks. The cost of the birds ranged from 20 marks to 150 marks.

The spread of the canaries in Europe also contributed to the exhibition. The history of breeding canaries dates back almost 500 years. During that time, it was deduced many species. Moreover, for each state had different kinds of valuable. For example, in the Netherlands the value of birds depended on its shape in England – the color of feathers. Interesting detail: to achieve new colors feathers, birds included in the diet of cayenne pepper, whereby a red-orange birds.

In Russia, the first selection refers to 2007, when the Ministry of Agriculture has been registered Russian breed canaries. Throughout the history of breeding canaries, special attention was paid to their singing abilities. In the wild, singing canaries are not particularly musical, but very nice. In selecting the individuals were removed, different melodic singing and rich intonation. Most of musical abilities, canaries were placed together with the already-formed feathered singer or music they played at special musical instruments.

In Russia there is even a classification of the songs of canaries. For example: Bell (longest sounds like bells overflow), a scattering (Trill, long and sonorous, like a crumbling), oatmeal (low-pitched melodic sounds, issued slower than placer), rebound (short repetition of individual sounds) and others.

Because of the small size and ruggedness, canaries often have at home. For their content does not need a very large cage (optimal size 30h20h30), and with proper care can live birds in captivity up to 14 years.

Accumulated a wealth of experience breeding canaries in captivity. With proper care, you can easily obtain offspring in captivity. But the pairing is necessary to choose a good pair of healthy birds, aged from one to four or five years. Birds need to be active, to have a beautiful color and a different good singing abilities. Genetically transmitted painting of two parents, and the voice of the chicks only inherit from his father.

After the steam is formed, it is placed in a separate cage.

In size it can be a little more than normal cells. For the construction of the nest, which is mainly engaged in female birds must provide the material. As he used sliced ​​threads, linen or cotton. Suitable as rags or glomeruli.

In the wild canary nest is cup-shaped, some owners are trying to create an environment similar to their students. Each nest hanging from the corner of the cell. He can not move or change its location, especially if the female has laid eggs. Only in case of emergency, this procedure can be performed with special precautions (at night), or can throw a canary nest and reproduce. During the breeding canaries need peace and quiet.

Usually, the female prepares the nest for about a week. After that makes the clutch. The incubation period lasts about two weeks. Parents alternate in hatching. In the mother care and feeding of offspring are also involved both parents. After the chicks grow up and leave the nest (16-18 day), if a male has not been otsazhen of the cell, the female can make a new clutch. In this case, the cell hang another nest or add a building material for its construction.

During the period of breeding birds chicks should provide good nutrition. In addition to the grain in the diet should include protein feed: grated egg with toasted bread. Next, the mixture is added carrots. The chicks start to eat independently a month after hatching.

The main diet for canaries consists of a grain mix. One bird per day is required 1-2 teaspoons of food. The basis of the menu – oatmeal. To this is added in different proportions: millet, sunflower seeds, poppy seeds, carrots. Of fruits and vegetables canaries prefer apple, pear, grapes, lettuce, parsley and shpinat.

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Hamster

Hamster – has a solid build size of an average rat 24-34 cm, but with a shorter tail, 4-6 cm, and small paws. He has large cheek pouches, which can hold up to 50 grams of grain.

Color bright fur: top razhavo-red color, black abdomen, with each side of the head and the chest has three white spots, with white nose and paws. There are animals with black or black-and-white color.

Is widespread in the European part of Russia, in the Ante and the south of Western Siberia. Settles everywhere except swamps and dense forests, not uncommon in areas inhabited by humans, and even within the city.

During the winter becomes dormant, but during the long thaw wakes up and try to eat. First awakened hamsters fed not only by their reserves, but also carry out raids in the long storage of their neighbors.

Normal hamster as well as other kinds of hamsters is crepuscular animals, being active at night and daytime, conducting in their burrows. Dig a hole as usual-seekers, as well as more complex constants. Summer brood burrows are dug to a depth of half a meter with 2-3 oblique strokes and always one vertical outlet. For winter hamsters pull myself socket camera and several storage rooms at a depth already in the meter and a half. Immediately before hibernation animal scores sloping ground all the moves, leaving himself only vertical movement.

For his livelihood hamster have to move a lot. But little feet do not enable a higher speed. And in the event of danger to them do not try to run away, and freeze or if the holes are close-seekers hiding in it.

Because of its slow running hamsters do not rarely try to fight off enemies. Despite the apparent harmlessness and trusting hamster pretty aggressive animal. If block his path to his burrow, he fearlessly throws himself even in man, and much bite.

The basic diet of plant food for the winter grain stocks are doing, sometimes tubers (10-16 kg). Unlike many other rodents are unable to absorb the crude vegetable food such as plant stalks. Of animal food eat insects and occasionally carrion. In the spring of hamsters eat young shoots of plants, later moving on berries, seeds and tubers. If within reach of ordinary hamster are fields or gardens, it is their regular customer.

Hamsters multiply fast: they have a short period of pregnancy and breastfeeding, the year is 2-3 hatches of 4-18 pups. All males have a personal area of ​​10-12 hectares, but the females only 4-6 acres. The male fertilizes several females and protect their sites from other males. The first estrus begins April, pregnancy lasts three weeks, the young cubs leave their mother after 20-21 days after birth, and become sexually mature until the following year.

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